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    首頁 > 服務器 > Linux服務器 > 正文

    Linux系統下最強大的磁盤管理技術LVM

    2019-10-13 18:41:15
    字體:
    來源:轉載
    供稿:網友

    摘要: 使用 Debian Linux 下的 lvm2 配置 LVM 磁盤系統
    作者: By REISTLIN [雷斯林] MSN: Rexxxxxx@hotmail.com QQ: 3A984
    版權: 原創文章.轉載請保留作者信息和原文完整.謝絕任何方式的摘要.
    本文出自:http://www.reistlin.com/blog/493

    LVM 介紹:

    LVM - Logical Volume Manager 是Linux系統下最強大的磁盤管理技術之一.它將您從不得不思考物理容量中解脫出來,代之以邏輯形式來思考這些容量. 當您需要考慮如何替用戶數據和系統文件分配空間的時候,LVM可以讓您徹底忘記傳統的分區做法.

    簡單地來說,LVM就是將眾多物理設備組合成一個大的虛擬設備,用戶只需思考如何在虛擬設備上做傳統的空間分配策略,而將物理設備的管理交由LVM自己去處理.這個由物理設備組合所成的虛擬設備稱為卷組(Volume Group),簡稱為VG;而用戶在卷組VG上所劃分的磁盤空間則稱為邏輯卷(Logical Volume),簡稱為LV;而原始物理設備必須經過初始化處理才能加入卷組集合,這種經過特別處理的原始設備或磁盤空間則稱為物理卷(Physical Volume),簡稱為PV.

    LVM磁盤空間管理系統允許您在需要的時候重新調整大小, 這也就意味著在管理磁盤空間資源方面, 您將獲得極大程度的自由. 基本上這是很有誘惑力的, 但您應該留心硬盤出錯的情況,如果您沒有在LVM管理中為出現這種情況而做好計劃,那么您可能會丟失大量數據.

     

    LVM 術語:

    PV - Physical Volume 物理卷,例如一個硬盤,或一個Software RAID設備;
    VG - Volume Group 卷組,將一組物理卷收集為一個管理單元;
    LV - Logical Volume 邏輯卷,等同于傳統分區,可看作便準的塊設備,以容納文件系統;
    PE - Physical Extent 物理塊,劃分物理卷的數據塊;
    LE - Logical Extent 邏輯塊,劃分邏輯卷的數據塊;

    LVM 結構:

    為了讓大家了解關于LVM的概念和結構.實現方式等.作者花了整整一天時間畫了一個圖.
    突然發現自己的”設計”水準很前衛很潮流. (誰說圖片不好看誰就不要看文章了! :-))

    Linux系統下最強大的磁盤管理技術LVM

    說明: /boot 這個掛載分區不能存在于VG卷組里.所以我們一般是建議單獨分區.

    使用LVM的基本步驟如下:

    1. 安裝lvm2 ( apt-get install lvm2 )

    2. 使用fdisk分區指定的物理硬盤

    3. 使用lvm管理工具進行lvm配置 (建立PV / VG / LV)

    4. 格式化已經設置好的LV邏輯卷.掛載到指定目錄.

    5. 關于如何增加/刪除/修改LV邏輯卷大小.請期待第2季.

    LVM 配置步驟:

    // 查看物理磁盤狀態 - 硬盤(容量1GB) /dev/sdb 已經識別

    Debian:/home/reistlin# fdisk -l

    Disk /dev/sda: 10.7 GB, 10737418240 bytes
    255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 1305 cylinders
    Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
    Disk identifier: 0×0002db3a

    Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
    /dev/sda1 1 1033 8297541 83 Linux
    /dev/sda2 1034 1305 2184840 82 Linux swap / Solaris

    Disk /dev/sdb: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
    128 heads, 32 sectors/track, 512 cylinders
    Units = cylinders of 4096 * 512 = 2097152 bytes
    Disk identifier: 0×00000000

    Disk /dev/sdb doesn’t contain a valid partition table

    // 使用 fdisk 對 /dev/sdb 分區

    Debian:/home/reistlin# fdisk /dev/sdb
    Device contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun, SGI or OSF disklabel
    Building a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0×4e896764.
    Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
    After that, of course, the previous content won’t be recoverable.

    Warning: invalid flag 0×0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)

    Command (m for help): new
    Command action
    e extended
    p primary partition (1-4)

    p

    Partition number (1-4): 1
    First cylinder (1-512, default 1):
    Using default value 1
    Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-512, default 512):
    Using default value 512

    Command (m for help): m
    Command action
    a toggle a bootable flag
    b edit bsd disklabel
    c toggle the dos compatibility flag
    d delete a partition
    l list known partition types
    m print this menu
    n add a new partition
    o create a new empty DOS partition table
    p print the partition table
    q quit without saving changes
    s create a new empty Sun disklabel
    t change a partition’s system id
    u change display/entry units
    v verify the partition table
    w write table to disk and exit
    x extra functionality (experts only)

    Command (m for help): w
    The partition table has been altered!

    Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
    Syncing disks.

    // 查看分區后的物理磁盤信息 - /dev/sdb1 狀態正常

    Debian:/home/reistlin# fdisk -l

    Disk /dev/sda: 10.7 GB, 10737418240 bytes
    255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 1305 cylinders
    Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
    Disk identifier: 0×0002db3a

    Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
    /dev/sda1 1 1033 8297541 83 Linux
    /dev/sda2 1034 1305 2184840 82 Linux swap / Solaris

    Disk /dev/sdb: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
    128 heads, 32 sectors/track, 512 cylinders
    Units = cylinders of 4096 * 512 = 2097152 bytes
    Disk identifier: 0×4e896764

    Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
    /dev/sdb1 1 512 1048560 83 Linux

    // 進入 LVM 模式

    Debian:/home/reistlin# lvm

    // 查看 LVM 磁盤狀態 - 目前沒有任何 LVM 磁盤信息

    lvm> lvmdiskscan
    /dev/ram0 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/ram1 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/root [ 7.91 GB]
    /dev/ram2 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/sda2 [ 2.08 GB]
    /dev/ram3 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/ram4 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/ram5 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/ram6 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/ram7 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/ram8 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/ram9 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/ram10 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/ram11 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/ram12 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/ram13 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/ram14 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/ram15 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/sdb [ 1.00 GB]
    2 disks
    17 partitions
    0 LVM physical volume whole disks
    0 LVM physical volumes

    // 查看 LVM 配置文件 - dump 模式

    lvm> dumpconfig
    devices {
    dir=”/dev”
    scan=”/dev”
    preferred_names=[]
    filter=”a/.*/”
    cache_dir=”/etc/lvm/cache”
    cache_file_prefix=”"
    write_cache_state=1
    sysfs_scan=1
    md_component_detection=1
    ignore_suspended_devices=0
    }
    activation {
    missing_stripe_filler=”/dev/ioerror”
    reserved_stack=256
    reserved_memory=8192
    process_priority=-18
    mirror_region_size=512
    readahead=”auto”
    mirror_log_fault_policy=”allocate”
    mirror_device_fault_policy=”remove”
    }
    global {
    umask=63
    test=0
    units=”h”
    activation=1
    proc=”/proc”
    locking_type=1
    fallback_to_clustered_locking=1
    fallback_to_local_locking=1
    locking_dir=”/var/lock/lvm”
    }
    shell {
    history_size=100
    }
    backup {
    backup=1
    backup_dir=”/etc/lvm/backup”
    archive=1
    archive_dir=”/etc/lvm/archive”
    retain_min=10
    retain_days=30
    }
    log {
    verbose=0
    syslog=1
    overwrite=0
    level=0
    indent=1
    command_names=0
    prefix=” ”
    }

    // 創建 Physical Volume (PV)

    lvm> pvcreate
    Please enter a physical volume path
    lvm> pvcreate /dev/sdb1
    Physical volume “/dev/sdb1″ successfully created

    // 查看 Physical Volume (PV) 狀態

    lvm> pvdisplay
    CTRL-c detected: giving up waiting for lock
    — Physical volume —
    PV Name /dev/sdb1
    VG Name vg_test
    PV Size 1023.98 MB / not usable 3.98 MB
    Allocatable yes (but full)
    PE Size (KByte) 4096
    Total PE 255
    Free PE 0
    Allocated PE 255
    PV UUID SwfyW5-veGN-1Ptd-VIUo-0I3I-CdVB-QF7BwC

    // 再次查看 LVM 磁盤狀態

    lvm> lvmdiskscan
    /dev/ram0 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/ram1 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/root [ 7.91 GB]
    /dev/ram2 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/sda2 [ 2.08 GB]
    /dev/ram3 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/ram4 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/ram5 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/ram6 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/ram7 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/ram8 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/ram9 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/ram10 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/ram11 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/ram12 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/ram13 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/ram14 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/ram15 [ 8.00 MB]
    /dev/sdb1 [ 1023.98 MB] LVM physical volume
    1 disk
    17 partitions
    0 LVM physical volume whole disks
    1 LVM physical volume

    // 創建 Volume Group (VG)

    lvm> vgcreate vg_test
    Please enter physical volume name(s)
    lvm> vgcreate vg_test /dev/sdb1
    Volume group “vg_test” successfully created

    // 查看 Volume Group (VG) 狀態

    lvm> vgdisplay
    — Volume group —
    VG Name vg_test
    System ID
    Format lvm2
    Metadata Areas 1
    Metadata Sequence No 1
    VG Access read/write
    VG Status resizable
    MAX LV 0
    Cur LV 0
    Open LV 0
    Max PV 0
    Cur PV 1
    Act PV 1
    VG Size 1020.00 MB
    PE Size 4.00 MB
    Total PE 255
    Alloc PE / Size 0 / 0
    Free PE / Size 255 / 1020.00 MB
    VG UUID Dbm7gQ-HDao-0z2Z-2u3q-XK9A-bmEv-ES3qC0

    // 創建 Logical Volume (LV) - 如果需要使用全部VG空間. 輸入 -l <Total PE> 的值.
    // <Total PE> 的值可以使用 vgdisplay 命令查看: Total PE = 255

    lvm> lvcreate -l 255 vg_test -n lv_test
    Logical volume “lv_test” created

    // 查看 Logical Volume (LV) 狀態

    lvm> lvdisplay
    — Logical volume —
    LV Name /dev/vg_test/lv_test
    VG Name vg_test
    LV UUID l3GUct-M3nG-m837-wOe2-4EWo-ZPU6-xskaq8
    LV Write Access read/write
    LV Status available
    # open 0
    LV Size 1020.00 MB
    Current LE 255
    Segments 1
    Allocation inherit
    Read ahead sectors auto
    - currently set to 256
    Block device 254:0

    // 輸入 exit 退出 LVM 配置模式. Ext3 格式化 lv_test 邏輯卷

    Debian:/home/reistlin# mkfs -t ext3 -j /dev/vg_test/lv_test
    mke2fs 1.41.3 (12-Oct-2008)
    Filesystem label=
    OS type: Linux
    Block size=4096 (log=2)
    Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
    65280 inodes, 261120 blocks
    13056 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
    First data block=0
    Maximum filesystem blocks=268435456
    8 block groups
    32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
    8160 inodes per group
    Superblock backups stored on blocks:
    32768, 98304, 163840, 229376

    Writing inode tables: done
    Creating journal (4096 blocks): done
    Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

    This filesystem will be automatically checked every 25 mounts or
    180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.

    // 掛載 lv_test 邏輯卷到 /mnt 目錄. 你也可以掛載到 /home 目錄

    Debian:/home/reistlin# mount /dev/vg_test/lv_test /mnt
    Debian:/home/reistlin# cd /mnt

    // 測試文件讀寫. Reistlin.Com. OKay.

    Debian:/mnt# vim Reistlin.Com
    Debian:/mnt# cat Reistlin.Com
    Welcome to Reistlin.Com

    發表評論 共有條評論
    用戶名: 密碼:
    驗證碼: 匿名發表
    一级特黄大片欧美久久久久_一本一道久久综合狠狠老_JLZZ日本人年轻护士_欧美男男作爱VIDEOS可播放
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